Earlier this week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency announced - [ http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/27/us/epa-ozone-limits-divide-industry-and-environmentalists.html ] proposed regulations to curb emissions of ozone, which causes smog, not to mention asthma, heart disease and premature death. And you know what happened: Republicans went on the attack, claiming that the new rules would impose enormous costs.
There's no reason to take these complaints seriously, at least in terms of substance. Polluters and their political friends have a track record of crying wolf. Again and again, they have insisted that American business — which they usually portray as endlessly innovative, able to overcome any obstacle — would curl into a quivering ball if asked to limit emissions. Again and again, the actual costs have been far lower than they predicted. In fact, almost always below the E.P.A.'s predictions [ http://www.epi.org/publication/bp69/ ].
So it's the same old story. But why, exactly, does it always play this way? Of course, polluters will defend their right to pollute, but why can they count on Republican support? When and why did the Republican Party become the party of pollution?
For it wasn't always thus. The Clean Air Act of 1970, the legal basis for the Obama administration's environmental actions [ http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/27/us/without-passing-a-single-law-obama-crafts-bold-enviornmental-policy.html ] , passed the Senate on a bipartisan vote of 73 to 0, and was signed into law by Richard Nixon. (I've heard veterans of the E.P.A. describe the Nixon years as a golden age.) A major amendment of the law, which among other things made possible the cap-and-trade system that limits acid rain, was signed in 1990 by former President George H.W. Bush.
But that was then. Today's Republican Party is putting a conspiracy theorist who views climate science as a "gigantic hoax" in charge of the Senate's environment committee. And this isn't an isolated case. Pollution has become a deeply divisive partisan issue.
And the reason pollution has become partisan is that Republicans have moved right. A generation ago, it turns out, environment wasn't a partisan issue: according to Pew Research- [ http://www.people-press.org/2012/06/04/partisan-polarization-surges-in-bush-obama-years/6-4-12-v-6/ ], in 1992 an overwhelming majority in both parties favored stricter laws and regulation. Since then, Democratic views haven't changed, but Republican support for environmental protection has collapsed.
So what explains this anti-environmental shift?
You might be tempted simply to blame money in politics, and there's no question that gushers of cash from polluters fuel the anti-environmental movement at all levels. But this doesn't explain why money from the most environmentally damaging industries, which used to flow to both parties, now goes overwhelmingly in one direction. Take, for example, coal mining. In the early 1990s, according to the Center for Responsive Politics, [ https://www.opensecrets.org/industries/totals.php?ind=E1210 ] the industry favored Republicans by a modest margin, giving around 40 percent of its money to Democrats. Today that number is just 5 percent. Political spending by the oil and gas industry has followed a similar trajectory. Again, what changed?
One answer could be ideology. Textbook economics isn't anti-environment; it says that pollution should be limited, albeit in market-friendly ways when possible. But the modern conservative movement insists that government is always the problem, never the solution, which creates the will to believe that environmental problems are fake and environmental policy will tank the economy.
My guess, however, is that ideology is only part of the story — or, more accurately, it's a symptom of the underlying cause of the divide: rising inequality. [ http://themonkeycage.org/2011/10/18/polarization-and-inequality/ ]
The basic story of political polarization over the past few decades is that, as a wealthy minority has pulled away economically from the rest of the country, it has pulled one major party along with it. True, Democrats often cater to the interests of the 1 percent, but Republicans always do. Any policy that benefits lower- and middle-income Americans at the expense of the elite — like health reform, which guarantees insurance to all and pays for that guarantee in part with taxes on higher incomes — will face bitter Republican opposition.
And environmental protection is, in part, a class issue, even if we don't usually think of it that way. Everyone breathes the same air, so the benefits of pollution control are more or less evenly spread across the population. But ownership of, say, stock in coal companies is concentrated in a few, wealthy hands. Even if the costs of pollution control are passed on in the form of higher prices, the rich are different from you and me. They spend a lot more money, and, therefore, bear a higher share of the costs.
In the case of the new ozone plan, the E.P.A.'s analysis - [ http://www.epa.gov/glo/pdfs/20141125fs-overview.pdf ] suggests that, for the average American, the benefits would be more than twice the costs. But that doesn't necessarily matter to the non-average American driving one party's priorities. On ozone, as with almost everything these days, it's all about inequality.